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Samoan
A racial category that reflects individuals who identify as having origins in Samoa. Also known as Western Samoan or American Samoan. Source: Census.gov
Scapegoat
Scapegoating is a hostile social/psychological discrediting routine by which people move blame and responsibility away from themselves and towards a target person or group. It is also a practice by which angry feelings and feelings of hostility may be projected, via inappropriate accusation, towards others. The target feels wrongly persecuted and receives misplaced vilification, blame and criticism; he is likely to suffer rejection from those who the perpetrator seeks to influence.Scapegoating has a wide range of focus: from "approved" enemies of very large groups of people down to the scapegoating of individuals by other individuals. Distortion is always a feature.
Scientology
Scientology was founded by L. Ron Hubbard. The Church states that its membership is 8 million. It currently has more than 3,000 churches, missions and groups in over 120 countries.Some Scientologist beliefs:A person is neither mind nor body, but a spiritual being — a soul. However, the word "soul" is an ambiguous term and in order to avoid confusion, Mr. Hubbard selected the word thetan from the Greek letter "theta" which has traditionally meant "thought" or "life". A Thetan is the essence of a person; One does not have a Thetan, one is a Thetan. The brain, and the rest of the body, is looked upon as a mechanism, a communication center for the Thetan. Scientology also recognizes Eight Dynamics. A "dynamic" is an urge, drive or impulse. Understanding these dynamics help a person gain insight and harmonize all their life activities. They reject the concept of eternal life in hell and heaven. They believe in reincarnation in which a person passes through a number of lifetimes. They believe that God exists, but do not have a specific belief about the nature of deity. Their goal is to help sufficient numbers of people to become "clear" so that a significant impact can be felt in areas of crime, mental illness, warfare, drug addiction, physical illnesses, etc. Scientology "auditing" is a unique form of personal counseling which uses a special tool to measure the mental state or change of state of the person being audited. It does this by continuously measuring the electrical resistance of the person's body. Variations of resistance are shown on a ammeter which are then interpreted by the Auditor. Auditors become ministers, are ordained and wear clerical clothing.Writings: In 1938, in an unpublished manuscript "Excalibur", Hubbard delineated the common denominator of existence as "survive" and outlined the theory that "life is composed of two things: the material universe and an X-factor that can evidently organize and mobilize the material universe."Source: ReligiousTolerance.org
Sect
1. A body of people subscribing to religious doctrines usually different from those of an established church from which they have separated.2. A religious denomination.3. The followers of a particular philosopher or philosophy, or school of thought in politics, etc.Source: "Sect". Illustrated Oxford Dictionary- Millennium Classic Limited Edition Collection. 1998.
Separate But Equal
This system of legally mandated racial privilege was approved by the U.S. Supreme court, which ruled in the case of Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that it was constitutional for states to require separate facilities (schools, parks etc.) for African Americans as long as the separate facilities were fully equal. The states paid close attention to the "separate" but ignored the "equal".Source: Healey, Joseph. Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. California: Pine Forge, 1998.
Separatism
A minority group goal. A seperatist group wishes to sever all ties with the dominant group.Source: Healey, Joseph. Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. California: Pine Forge, 1998.
Sexism
Any attitude, action or institutional structure which systematically subordinated a person or group because of their gender.Source: scriptorium.lib.duke.edu
Sexual Harassment
Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical conduct of a sexual nature constitutes sexual harassment when submission to or rejection of this conduct explicitly or implicitly affects an individual's employment, unreasonably interferes with an individual's work performance or creates an intimidating, hostile or offensive work environment.Source: eeoc.gov
Sexual Orientation
Sexual orientation is an essential human quality. Individuals have the right to accept, acknowledge, and live in accordance with their sexual orientation, be they bisexual, heterosexual, lesbian, gay or asexual. The legal system should guarantee the civil rights and protection of all people, regardless of sexual orientation. Prejudice and discrimination based on sexual orientation is unconscionableSource: Sexual Information & Education Council of the United States
Shinto
Shinto is an ancient Japanese religion. Starting about 500 B.C.E. (or earlier) it was originally "an amorphous mix of nature worship, fertility cults, divination techniques, hero worship, and shamanism." Estimates of the number of adherents are hopelessly unreliable. Some sources give numbers in the range of 2.8 to 3.2 million. One states that 40% of Japanese adults follow Shinto; that would account for about 50 million adherents. Others state that about 86% of Japanese adults follow a combination of Shinto and Buddhism; that would put the number of followers of Shinto at 107 million. One source estimates 1000 followers of Shinto in North America. The Canadian Census (1991) recorded only 445 in Canada.Some Shinto beliefs:Most Japanese citizens follow two religions: both Shinto and Buddhism. The two religions share a basic optimism about human nature, and for the world. Within Shinto, the Buddha was viewed as another "Kami" (nature deity). Meanwhile, Buddhism in Japan regarded the Kami as being manifestations of various Buddhas and Bodhisattvas.The Sun Goddess is regarded as the chief deity. There are numerous other deities who are conceptualized in many forms. Morality is based upon that which is of benefit to the group. "Shinto emphasizes right practice, sensibility, and attitude." Shinto recognizes many sacred places: mountains, springs, etc. Believers respect animals as messengers of the Gods. A pair of statues of "Koma-inu" (guard dogs) face each other within the temple grounds. An altar, the "Kami-dana" (Shelf of Gods), is given a central place in many homes. Followers are expected to visit Shinto shrines at the times of various life passages. Origami ("Paper of the spirits"): This is a Japanese folk art in which paper is folded into beautiful shapes. They are often seen around Shinto shrines. Out of respect for the tree spirit that gave its life to make the paper, origami paper is never cut Many texts are valued in the Shinto religion. Among them are the Kojiki, Rokkokushi, Shoku Nihongi and its Nihon Shoki, Jinno Shotoki and others.Source: ReligiousTolerance.org
Sikhism
No consensus exists on the origins of this religion. Historians and specialists in Eastern religions generally believe that Sikhism is a syncretistic religion, related to the Bhakti movement within Hinduism and the Sufi branch of Islam, to which many independent beliefs and practices were added. But many Sikhs disagree; they believe that their religion is a direct revealed from God — a religion that was not derived from either Hinduism or Islam. Some Sikh beliefs: The goal of Sikhs is to build a close, loving relationship with God. Sikhs believe in a single, Formless God, with many names, who can be known through meditation. Sikhs have rejected the caste system of the Hindu religion. For 500 years, Sikhs had always sat on the floor, while eating after religious services. This practice emphasizes the teachings of the Guru that every person is of equal value. The Sikh religion strongly rejects elitism. A few decades ago, some Sikh Temples in Canada deviated from this practice, and introduced tables and chairs. The tables and chairs are made identical in order to preserve the concept of equality. Still, the practice of eating at tables is considered elitism in India, and by many conservative Sikhs. Reincarnation, Reht Maryada — the Sikh code of conduct and conventionsPrayers: Sikhs are prohibited from worshipping idols, images, or icons.Temples: There are over 200 Gurdwaras (temples, shrines or holy places) in India alone. The most sacred is at Amritsar. The Five K's: These are clothing practices followed by stricter Sikhs, called Khalsa saints:Kesa (long hair, which is never cut)Kangah (comb)Kacha (short pants)Kara (metal bracelet)Kirpan (a ceremonial dagger)Writings: The tenth Guru, Gobind Singh compiled the Siri Guru Granth Sahib. It consists of hymns and writings of the first 10 Gurus, along with religious text from different Muslim and Hindu saints like: Kabir Ji, Baba Sheik Farid Ji, Bhagat Namdev, Bhagat Rav Dass Ji, etc. The Shri Guru Granth is considered the 11th and final Guru and the Sikh's holiest religious text. It was made so by Shri Guru Gobind Singh Ji.Source: ReligiousTolerance.org
Skinheads
Any group of people, formal or informal whose alliance is maintained by shared racism, political alienation, (almost always) shaved heads, more-or-less spontaneous outbursts of violence directed at Blacks, Latinos or other minority groups, and usually a uniform of dark clothing, combat boots and other war-inspired/paramilitary dress.Some skinheads are organized under names such as "White Aryan Resistance," "American Front Skinheads," "Reich Skins," "Romantic Violence," etc. with a leader, meetings, allies, propaganda (such as some specifically racist hard rock music), and have attendance at rallies and orchestrated attacks. While there is no single national organization of skinheads, however, there is an extensive network although members often drift in and out of different groups and allegiances. The male-dominated groups use the ideas of power, dominance and retribution to gain the participation of other young members.Source: Levin, Jack and McDevitt, Jack. Hate Crimes: The Rising Tide of Bigotry and Bloodshed. New York. Plenum. 1993.
Socialization
The process by which we learn the roles (socially or culturally defined behavioral expectations presumed to apply to all individuals in a category) of behavior in our world. This includes the many pressures, rewards and punishments that compel us to conform to social expectations. The family unit, language, the educational system, mass media, religion, laws, medical institutions, mental health systems, occupational environments, intimate relationships etc. are among the social institutions that teach and reinforce appropriate social behavior.Source: Cyrus, Virginia. Experiencing Race, Class and Gender in the United States. London: Mayfield PC, 1997.
Socio-Economic
Relating to the interaction of social and economic factors. It is unrealistic to separate social and economic factors. Just as an individual's success lies in a variety of factors -- including but certainly not limited to ones ambition and talents -- so does the fruitfulness of a community's business and cultural endeavors. Similarly, the geographic location one lives in, the amount of resources in the community for finding a job, home, health care, child care etc, the level of education a person attains as well as the presence of social factors such as bias, prejudice and discrimination determine the outcome of an individual's interviewing and being hired for a position. Likewise, a community wrought with unemployment, despondency and low-level schools and businesses is the result of the coupling of economics and social factors. As one worsens, so does the other unless there is intervention on the part of government, or community/social welfare agencies.A low socio-economic status community would find itself without the material needs to prosper and therefore, without sufficient cultural, educational, religious and their social attributes. Social standing and economic standing can be mutually exclusive. However in a discussion of power, prejudice and poverty they are a combined entity.Source: "Socio-economic". Illustrated Oxford Dictionary- Millennium Classic Limited Edition Collection. 1998.
Stereotype
Overgeneralizations that are thought to apply to all members of a group. Although stereotypes are often perceived as harmless jokes and simple categorizations, they are indicative of a larger social phenomena that reflects negative attitudes, prejudices and inherent biases between in-groups and out-groups. Stereotypes are often racially, ethnically, or religiously biased, homophobic or misogynist and are learned at an early age. However, stereotypes occur at the beginning of the continuum of hate and can therefore usually be halted before they do irreparable damage.See: Continuum of HateSource: Healey, Joseph. Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. California: Pine Forge, 1998.
Stratification
(Social) Social Stratification refers to structured inequality. This means that inequality is socially patterned. The implication is that inequalities are not caused by biological differences (e.g. gender). When people are ranked in a vertical arrangement that differentiates them as inferior or superior, we have stratification. The consequences of this placement is that the rewards and resources of society -- wealth, power, privilege -- are unequally distributed. And crucially, differential access to these societal rewards produces different life experiences and life chances. People at the low end of the stratification hierarchy will have inadequate health care, shelter and food.See: ClassSource: Zinn, B. Maxine and Eitzen D. Stanley. Diversity in Families. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.
Swastikas
By the summer of 1920, the swastika was commonly used in Germany as the official symbol of the Nazi party(short for Hitler's Nazional-socialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei -- NSDAP [National Socialist German Workers' Party]). Twenty-five years later it became a symbol of shame and defeat for Germany. After its adoption by the Nazis, few other symbols in the history of mankind have become so widely associated with evil.Most authors agree that it was Hitler himself who chose the swastika as a symbol of his Nazi movement. There is no agreement, however, about who influenced him into making such decision. In "Mein Kampf," Adolf Hitler claimed that the form in which the Nazis used the swastika was based on a design by Dr. Friedrich Krohn, a dentist who had belonged to several Volkisch groups, including the Germanen Order.Krohn knew that the Buddhist destroverse or clockwise swastika symbolized good fortune and well being, and made his design accordingly, with the swastika's legs pointing to the left. The majority of the Nazi leaders accepted Krohn's design, but Hitler insisted on a sinistroverse or anti-clockwise one and changed the design accordingly, similar to the one we have come to know. The swastika represents, among many other things, the eternal movement and spiritual renewal. The counterclockwise swastika adopted by the Nazis is regarded as symbolizing movement "away from the Godhead," and has become a contemporary motif of evil, while the clockwise swastika represents movement towards God and suggests a cosmic rhythm in tune with the Universe. Although this may or may not be the exact picture of how the swastika came to represent anti-Semitism, it is nevertheless a symbol of oppression, destruction and hate. Regardless of the direction of the legs, the symbol evokes fear and contempt. It should not be construed that there is an appropriate way to brandish this symbol, merely because it has also represented peace and good fortune. Its message has been perverted completely.Source: intelinet.org