P

Pacific Islander
A racial category that reflects individuals who identify as having origins in a Pacific Island such as Tahitian, Northern Mariana Islander, Palauan, Fijian, or any cultural group such as Melanesian, Micronesian or Polynesian.See: Native HawaiianSource: Census.gov
Patriarchy
When power, value and culture are androcentric; that is they are male-centered and male-dominated.Source: Cyrus, Virginia. Experiencing Race, Class and Gender in the United States. London: Mayfield PC, 1997.
Perception
The process, act or result of perceiving: To perceive is: To achieve understanding of, to comprehend.In the context of a hate crime, an offender or perpetrator must select the victim based on his or her perception of them. This understanding or comprehension of a person's culture, race, religion, sexual orientation, etc. may or may not be valid. However, the crime may still be considered as such because the motivation, regardless of the truth, is bias.See: Actual or PerceivedSource: "Perception, Perceive." The American Heritage Dictionary - Third Edition. 1994.
Physically Impaired
See: Disabled Individual
Pluralism
A situation in which groups have separate identities, cultures and organizational structures.Source: Healey, Joseph. Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. California: Pine Forge, 1998.

Of, relating to, or supporting a program of broad social, political, and educational change, especially to redress historical injustices in matters such as race, class, gender, and sexual orientation.For many, the concept of a "politically correct" world seems frustrating, difficult and pointless. In order to achieve these lofty goals, individuals, groups, the media, educational practices etc. must all work together under the common purpose of bridging the social, political and economic disparities that exist in modern society. The task is daunting because so much of our cultural life as Americans ignores the linguistic, demographic and other injustices that perpetuate the status quo, disenfranchising some and exalting others, however, it is not impossible.We can move towards a more respectful environment without turning our world upside-down in an extreme fashion by simply employing more considerate, tactful and appropriate language skills and evolving our practices from that solid foundation.Examples: It is inappropriate and offensive to tell sexually related [or dirty] jokes to or around persons who might be offended. It is wrong to mock a person for their sexual orientation or to make passes toward someone in the workplace. These are fairly basic social graces and not difficult to learn or teach.Another example: When discussing the earliest inhabitants of North America, we identify these individuals as Native Americans, and not the incorrect but colloquial term; Indians. This kind of deference to others paves the way to better inter-group communication and increased collaboration.Source: lesbianlife.about.com
An inability to afford the basic necessities of food, housing, clothing and medical care. The mistaken perception of poverty is that it is the burden of the destitute or unemployed. The truth is that many Americans remain poor despite having at least one job. Federal reports on poverty do not at all reflect the real picture. The "Poverty Line" that was constructed 30 years ago is the same tool used today. However, the percentage of income spent on food, housing, clothing and medical care shifts constantly making this calculation obsolete. A clearer picture can be constructed with a recalculated budget for the year 2001. Using this model, one-third of all Americans live in poverty. This indicates not a problem on the individual (family) level, but on the macro ( society) level.Source: Pascale, Celine-Marie. Experiencing Race, Class and Gender in the United States. Ed. Cyrus, Virginia. London: Mayfield PC, 1997.
The tendency of individuals to think and feel negatively toward other groups. Cognitive prejudice is the thinking dimension wherein an individual thinks about other groups in terms of stereotypes. Affective prejudice is the emotional component whereby an individual with prejudices attaches negative emotions to other groups.Source: Healey, Joseph. Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. California: Pine Forge, 1998.
Opinion expressed for the purpose of influencing actions of individuals or groups. Propaganda can be as blatant as a swastika or as subtle as a joke. Its persuasive techniques are regularly applied by politicians, advertisers, journalists, radio personalities, and others who are interested in influencing human behavior. Propagandistic messages can be used to accomplish positive social ends, as in campaigns to reduce drunk driving, but they are also used to win elections and to sell products.Source: carmen.artsci.washington.edu (archive)
Because of one's race, gender, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, ancestry, disability or age one may more likely find him or herself as a victim of sexual harassment, discrimination or other prejudice. Furthermore, it has historically been the case that several of these categories of people have been the victim of bias. As such, civil and federal laws are constructed to afford individuals in these commonly targeted groups the same rights, liberties and protections that others receive. However, hate crimes are not the same as discrimination.Discrimination is a bias or prejudice that effects one's objectivity with specific focus on educational or job attainment. A Hate crime, on the other hand also involves a bias, prejudice or belief that alters ones objectivity but which causes them to target a person, group or property as the victim of a crime. Federal hate crime legislation protects individuals from all of the aforementioned categories whereas civil laws may or may not.Source: rpi.edu/dept/hr/policy/genempguide.html (archive)