National Origin
One of the categories for which people experience bias and prejudice. This characteristic is closely allied with race and ancestry but does not equate with either. Whereas ancestry is indicative of one's lineage, national origin can simply be where one is born, with no relevance to their skin color, culture or familial lines. Hate crime legislation encompasses offenders who target individuals or groups based on National origin.See: Blood Quantum Source: "Hate Crimes 101: The Continuum of Hate". BiasHELP LI.
Native American
Peoples who are indigenous to the Americas. They also have been known as American Indians. The name Indian was first applied to them by Christopher Columbus, who believed mistakenly that the mainland and islands of America were part of the Indies in Asia. Native Americans are physically most similar to Asian populations and appear to have descended from Asian peoples who migrated across the Bering land bridge during the Pleistocene Epoch, also known as the Ice Age, beginning perhaps some 30,000 years ago.Like other peoples with Mongolian characteristics, Native Americans tend to have light brown skin, brown eyes, and dark, straight hair. They differ from Asians, however, in their characteristic blood types. Because many Native Americans today have had one or more European-Americans or African Americans among their ancestors, numerous people who are legally and culturally Native American may look fairer or darker than Mongolian peoples or may have markedly non-Mongolian facial features. Many Native Americans have a distinct set of cultural and religious practices although, as with every cultural, racial and religious group, it should not be assumed that because of physical characteristics indicating membership in a particular race, every Native American adheres to these beliefs (ie: belongs to a tribe, lives on a reservation etc.)See: Native American SpiritualitySource: encarta.msn.com
Native American Spirituality
Many followers of Native American Spirituality, do not regard their spiritual beliefs and practices as a "religion" in the way in which many Christians do. Their beliefs and practices form a integral and seamless part of their very being. Because of the wide range of habitats in North America, different native religions evolved to match the needs and lifestyles of the individual tribe. Natives today follow many spiritual traditions: Many Native families today have been devout Christians for generations. Others, particularly in the Southwest have retained their aboriginal traditions more or less intact. Most follow a personal faith that combines traditional and Christian elements.The Native American Church is a continuation of the ancient Peyote Religion which had used a cactus with psychedelic properties called peyote for about 10,000 years. Incorporated in 1918, its original aim was to promote Christian beliefs and values, and to use the peyote sacrament. Although use of peyote is restricted to religious ritual which is protected by the U.S. Constitution, and it is not harmful or habit forming, and has a multi-millennia tradition, there has been considerable opposition from Christian groups, from governments, and from within some tribes.The traditional Inuit (Eskimo) culture is similar to those found in other circumpolar regions Their religious belief is grounded in the belief that anua (souls) exist in all people and animals. The Angakut or Shaman is the spiritual leader of each tribe. Native religions in the areas of the Eastern Subarctic, Eastern Woodlands, Plains and Southwest cultures share some similarities, and differ significantly from Inuit culture described above. Tribes also differ greatly from each other.Spiritual elements found in some (but not all) non-Inuit native religions are:Deity: A common concept is that of a dual divinity.Creation: Individual tribes have differing stories of Creation. One set of themes found in some tribes describes that in the beginning, the world was populated by many people. Most were subsequently transformed into animals. Natives thus feel a close bond with animals because of their shared human ancestry.Shamans: Although the term "Shaman" has its origins in Siberia, it is often used by anthropologists throughout the world to refer to Aboriginal healers. Spirits may be encouraged to occupy the Shaman's body during public lodge ceremonies. Drum beating and chanting aid this process.Sacred Texts: Many tribes have complex forms of writing. Other tribes have preserved their spiritual beliefs as an oral tradition.Source: ReligiousTolerance.org
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander
A racial category that reflects individuals who identify as having origins in any of the original peoples of Hawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands. It includes people who indicate their race as "Native Hawaiian", "Guamanian", or "Chamorro", "Samoan", and "Pacific Islander".Source: Census.gov
People who believe that the US should be reserved for native-born Protestant whites. Nativists may propose that all other groups be eliminated from the society.Source: Healey, Joseph. Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. California: Pine Forge, 1998.
An extremely racist, violently anti-Semitic fascist political party in 1930s Germany that held power under Adolf Hitler from 1935-1945.See: Holocaust
Rise of 21st Century extremist right-wing political groups who are inspired by or follow the tenets of Adolf Hitler's Nazi Party. There are a wide range of neo-nazi groups in the U.S. today including but not limited to: The American Nazi Party,Aryan Nations,National Alliance,Christian Defense League,National Socialist Movement,New Order,White Aryan Resistance,World Church of the Creator (WCOTC).Many of these groups have subgroups or chapter affiliates, however, some may be little more than individuals with strong neo-nazi ideals.Sources: University of Delaware -&- ARA of Texas: Austin Chapter