The term(s) used to describe those people who are currently living and working in the United States without (proof of) citizenship. The term is also an epithet used to (wrongly) describe people who work in manual labor fields who are from Latin America, without knowledge of their citizenship status. Undocumented workers are especially vulnerable to abuse and exploitation and often have few resources when abused. The workers are often paid below the minimum wage, see their paychecks withheld, and are discriminated against based on their ethnicity and language. It is often the case that there is physical violence perpetrated against them as well.U.S. citizenship can be obtained in one of four ways: 1. Birth in the U.S or its territories2. Birth to U.S. citizen parents3. Naturalization (the grant of citizenship after an application and exam)4. Naturalization of one's parentsIf someone was born on U.S. soil, became a naturalized U.S. citizen or was born to U.S. citizen parents, and has been living in the United States, the fact that they have U.S. citizenship is clear, however, there are more than a dozen alternatives to realizing one's citizenship.Source: Nolo.com
To come (or one who comes) as a permanent resident to a county other than one's native land.Source: "Immigrate". Illustrated Oxford Dictionary - Millennium Classic Limited Edition Collection. 1998.
Social or economic disparity.Source: "Inequality". The American Heritage Dictionary Third Edition. 1994.
In-group a.k.a. "we-group", identifies a group of people who see themselves as an extended family of sorts. They behave at least somewhat benevolently toward one another because of kin selection. The criteria that is often used for establishing "in-group" cohorts is one of the following: 1. Genetics (ie: skin pigment)2. Uniform (ie: clothing, tattooing, headgear)3. Behavior (ie: speech, manners etc.) The result is of course, the simultaneous realization that all others are part of the "out-group".Intergroup conflict stems from realistic competition between groups that intensifies in-group bias and out-group hostility. We now understand that competition and conflicting group interests are not necessary prerequisites for inter-group conflict. Conflict and in-group bias can also result from the mere act of categorizing individuals into groups (Tajfel, 1969, 1978).Through the abundance of work using the minimal group paradigm, it is clear that arbitrarily dividing individuals into groups can foster in-group bias and out-group hostility. Thus, both realistic group conflict and mere social categorization can generate in-group bias, prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination.
Sources: Healey, Joseph. Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class: The Sociology
of Group Conflict and Change. California: Pine Forge, 1998. FindArticles.com
Individuals and institutions may use decision-making procedures that inadvertently discriminate and reinforce inequalities. For example, income differentials can cause unequal access to education even though the school system does not intend to discriminate. Similarly, when housing is segregated by income (usually divided according to racial lines), all individuals do not have equal access to job information, as higher income (usually white) income households will tend to have greater access to job information through personal contacts than lower income (usually black) households.Thus employers will have more higher-income white applicants than if housing was distributed without regard to race or income. Or, employers who attempt to reduce their screening costs might rely on stereotypes rather than individualized information when deciding which applicants to interview. Even though this discrimination, racism, bias, prejudice and bigotry may not be deliberate, the result is that harm is inflicted on all of the disadvantaged groups and thus, the cycle of poverty or continuum of hate is reinforced.Source: Cherry, Robert. Experiencing Race, Class and Gender in the United States. Ed. Cyrus, Virginia. London: Mayfield PC, 1997.
Desegregate, especially racially.Source: "Integration". Illustrated Oxford Dictionary - Millennium Classic Limited Edition Collection. 1998.
See: In-group / Out-group
Typically: An African-American and a White partner. However, the concept of race is an ambiguous one. In order to define what an "interracial couple" is, one must first believe that there are strict divisions of race. If we accept the three general divisions of: Caucasian, Black and Asian, interracial couples are then any combination of these groups.For the purpose of discourse pertaining to interracial couples however, the strongest rifts are clearly those between mixed Black and White couples. Issues surrounding interracial couples are a reflection of the ways in which race operates in American society. The problems and difficulties many interracial couples experience only underscore the legacy of slavery and the mistreatment of all minority groups. Source: McNamara, Robert, P., Tempenis, Maria and Walton, Beth. Crossing the Line: Interracial Couples in the South. Conneticut: Praeger. 1999.
An organism with male and female characteristics: an organism with characteristics of both genders. Source: MSN online dictionary
Not tolerant of difference in beliefs of others; bigoted.Source: "Intolerant" The American Heritage Dictionary Third Edition. 1994.
Islam is the second largest religion in the world, exceeded in membership only by Christianity. Estimates of the total number of Muslims range from 0.7 to 1.2 billion worldwide and 3 to 6 million in the U.S. Most religious historians view Islam as having been founded in 622 CE by Muhammad the Prophet.Followers of Islam are called Muslims. "Muslim" is an Arabic word that refers to a person who submits themselves to the Will of God. "Allah" is an Arabic word meaning "the One True God. The writings: The Qur'an is a complete record of the words revealed by God through the Angel Gabriel to the Prophet Muhammad. Its name is often spelled "Koran" in English. This is not recommended, as some Muslims find it offensive, and the Hadith, which are collections of the sayings of Muhammad (pbuh)*.Some Islamic Beliefs: Muslims practice living out the duties as described in the Five Pillars of Islam, including: prayer five times a day, fasting (during Ramadan), the hajj (pilgrimage), worshiping nothing except God, and Zakah (giving some of one's wealth or possessions away). Women and men have specific codes of dress and a diet that prohibits certain foods such as bacon, gelatin and pepperoni. There are different schools of jurisprudence within Islam.*What does (pbuh) stand for? Out of respect, Muslims speak or write "Peace Be Unto Him" after using Muhammad's (pbuh) name.Source: ReligiousTolerance.org -&- Council on American-Islamic Relations. An Educator's Guide to Islamic Religious Practices, Second Edition. Washington, DC: CAIR Research Center, 1997. -&- Taibah International Aid Association. Discover Islam. USA: Transcom International, 1999.