A group of youths (generally, but not invariably) who band together for social and often criminal purposes."Because gangs are typically organized along racial or ethnic lines and espouse racist beliefs, their members tend to develop or intensify biased feelings toward other races or ethnic groups." The authors see that this is a problem when assigning prison time to hate crime offenders, because of the exorbitantly high rate of racial/ethnic gang activity within the US prison system."According to the National Crime Survey, only about 25 percent of all crimes of violence are committed by more than one offender. By contrast, 64 percent of hate crimes reported to the police involve two or more perpetrators. Indeed most are carried out by a group of four or more offenders who attack their victims in a gang. In contrast to gang warfare in which teenagers fight teenagers, however, the targets of hate crimes are not necessarily in their teens or early twenties. Many victims are over thirty, and some are young children."Sources: "Gangs". The American Heritage Dictionary Third Edition. 1994. -&- Levin, Jack and McDevitt, Jack. Hate Crimes: The Rising Tide of Bigotry and Bloodshed. New York. Plenum. 1993.
According to Alfred Kinsey, a research pioneer in the 1940-50s, "one in ten" persons in the US is gay or lesbian. However, the authors of "Sex in America", the book based on the national sex survey, say that we cannot say that a person is gay or not gay because: 1. People often change their sexual behavior during their lifetime, making it impossible to state that a particular set of behaviors defines a person as gay.
2. There is no one set of sexual desires or self-identification that uniquely defines homosexuality.
3. Homosexuality is not easily measured. (Because of persecution, many people never reveal their sexual orientation, living lives that appear to be heterosexually oriented.)
The term gay is used specifically to describe the sexual orientation of homosexual males, the female term is lesbian. However, it can encompass both groups as well. Often, this term is used as an anti-homosexual epithet or as slang unrelated to sexual orientation, but infused with negative connotation.Source: Zinn, B. Maxine and Eitzen D. Stanley. Diversity in Families. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.
Gay Pride (Parade/Celebration)
A movement to build gay (originally male) community united behind specific themes of reconciliation among racial groups, political values, health and well-being, and in the best scenario characterized by carefully-produced events focused on injecting into gay (male) cultural life, themes such as promoting caring in the social, sexual and political lives, combating racism and healing rifts between generations of gay (men) people. "While not the sole answer to the complex and shifting needs facing gay male communities or the issues that divide, {these} mass rituals can provide one useful arena in which to tackle tough issues facing {gay male} communal life."Source: Rofes, Eric. Dry Bones Breathe: Gay Men Creating Post-AIDS Identities and Culture. New York. Harrington Park, 1998.
A sexual category: males or females as a group. Gender Roles are expectations about the proper behavior, attitudes and personality traits for males and females.Source: Healey, Joseph. Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. California: Pine Forge, 1998.
A person or thing not conforming to gender stereotypes.Source: "Gender-bender". Illustrated Oxford Dictionary- Millennium Classic Limited Edition Collection. 1998.
Whoever, whether in time of peace or in time of war... with the specific intent to destroy, in whole or in substantial part, a national, ethnic, racial, or religious group as such:kills members of that group;causes serious bodily injury to members of that group;causes the permanent impairment of the mental faculties of members of the group through drugs, torture, or similar techniques;subjects the group to conditions of life that are intended to cause the physical destruction of the group in whole or in part;imposes measures intended to prevent births within the group; ortransfers by force children of the group to another group; or attempts to do so.See: HolocaustSource: www4.law.cornell.edu
A section of a city occupied by a minority group who live there especially because of social, economic, or legal pressure.Formerly a section of a town or city within which Jews were compelled by law to reside. By extension the term came to denote any section inhabited principally or exclusively by Jews. Many historians consider the first ghetto to be one established on an island in Venice, Italy, in 1516 by government decree. Adolf Hitler caused ghettos to be established in German-occupied countries during World War II as part of his overall plan for annihilating the Jews.Ghettos form in most immigrant areas such as in New York concurrent with mass immigration up to the early part of the twentieth century. In this example the immigrants from Europe settled in ethnic neighborhoods (today known as "Little Italy" for example).Families created the old-country here in the new world and needed little interaction outside their ethnic sphere. Gradually, individuals had to seek employment and other goods and services from outside their particular area.As children were born in the new world, they were simultaneously members of their country of origin and ethnically, American. Public schools brought socialization with other Anglo-American students. Old country family values were, at times, conflicted with the new and the process to create ethnic harmony even within the family could be slow.Intercultural marriages, moving out of the neighborhood and bilingual children etc. eventually paved the way to the assimilation of the various morals, customs and traditions. With the assimilation comes the birth of new ideas and the loss of old. In this way, many people would prefer to remain tied to their traditional ethnicity in lieu of assimilation.In recent years the term ghetto has been applied, often derogatorily, to crowded urban areas, inhabited primarily by nonwhites.Sources: "Ghetto". The American Heritage Dictionary Third Edition. 1994.Source: "Ghetto," Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 2001. © 1997-2001 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.
A racial category that reflects individuals who identify as having origins in Chamorro or Guam.See: Native HawaiianSource: www.census.gov