Diversity is "otherness," or those human qualities that are different from our own and outside the groups to which we belong, yet are present in other individuals and groups. It is important to distinguish between the primary and secondary dimensions of diversity. Primary dimensions are the following: age, ethnicity, gender, physical abilities/qualities, race and sexual orientation.Secondary dimensions of diversity are those that can be changed, and include, but are not limited to: educational background, geographic location, income, marital status, military experience, familial status, religious beliefs, and work experiences.inform.umd.edu
Workers who come from other countries and who do not have proper papers to be legally employed in the United States are considered "undocumented laborers".Day laborers/workers are either undocumented or legal US residents (usually Hispanic males) who are employed as manual laborers on a day-to-day basis. Depending on the geographic or economic conditions of the region, day workers will perform farming, building, landscaping or other physically demanding labor. There is little or no regulation in terms of pay, workplace conditions or accountability for these workers and many suffer physical brutality, are denied payment for their work and suffer repeated verbal harassment from local residents. Because there is often a language barrier, and skepticism about the intentions of local authorities and social service agencies, few seek retribution for the hate crimes and discrimination perpetrated against them.See: AlienSource: OvertimeLaw.com
A system of racial separation and inequality that appears to result from voluntary choices about where to live, work and so forth. Often, this form of segregation is really de jure segregation in thin disguise.For example, a "Whites Only" water fountain is an example of de jure segregation while a Black family moving to Manhattan and residing in Harlem is an example of de facto segregation. In the first case, there is a specific rule imposed on racial segregation.In the second, the family may or may not have been forced to move to a neighborhood where the population in terms of race, was the same as their own. Real estate agents may have showed the family only homes in that area, or lack of financial security because of employment discrimination and inequality may not afford them money to live elsewhere. In the second scenario, the source of the segregation is hazy and may not be the choice of the individuals concerned.
The system of rigid competitive race relations that followed Reconstruction in the South. It lasted from the 1880's to the 1960's and was characterized by laws mandating racial separation and inequality.Source: Healey, Joseph. Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. California: Pine Forge, 1998.
A means of justifying the prejudice, violence or otherwise ill-treatment of a group of individuals.In their book, Levin and McDevitt describe the dehumanization of the members of a stigmatized group by a dominant group in order to make this kind of treatment more palatable. "After all," they say, "it is perfectly acceptable-perhaps even obligatory to slaughter an animal or to kill the devil".Dehumanizing a group as animals or other non-human entities is a means of justifying hate crimes in the mind of the perpetrator. A hate crime offender may find it difficult, if not impossible to assault another human being but not an object. Part of the dehumanization lies in projecting stereotypes onto individuals for whom a perpetrator has violent goals.A "cracker" or a "monkey" is an easier target than a person, for example. The suggestion is made, too that a treatment program for offenders would benefit from a reverse dehumanization process by which they learn to see their victims as humans who feel pain and suffering.Source: Levin, Jack and McDevitt, Jack. Hate Crimes: The Rising Tide of Bigotry and Bloodshed. New York. Plenum. 1993.
A disabled individual is any person who has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities; has a record of such impairment; or is regarded as having such an impairment.Simple physical characteristics such as the color of one's eyes, hair, or skin; baldness; left-handedness; or age do not constitute physical impairments. Similarly, disadvantages attributable to environmental, cultural, or economic factors are not the type of impairments covered.The term: Handicapped is a prevalent synonym. For most people, though, it holds negative connotations and in most cases is not preferred.See: Mentally ImpairedAmericans with Disabilities ActSource: County of Suffolk. Suffolk County Human Rights Commission. Equal Opportunity is not something you find but something you create. New York, Long Island. 1995.
To make distinctions on the basis of preference or prejudice.Different from prejudice, or bigotry. Discrimination encompasses illegal practices that are rooted in bias such as denying someone anything that is available to the public. In the workplace and in other arenas such as public education and health care, acts of prejudice and gender etc...There must be clear evidence that the discrimination is based on gender, race, religion, sexual orientation, ethnicity, age, disability etc. for there to be any legal recourse for the victim, This is exceptionally difficult to prove for most cases of discrimination, but not entirely impossible. Verbal cues, personal experience, witnesses etc. may help in proving such cases. Furthermore, depending on the location and the local and state laws regarding discrimination, some characteristics (such as sexual orientation) may not be covered. Finally, private clubs or other entities do not necessarily abide by these laws and regulations.Alternate definition: On a more basic level one can be a "discriminating eater", for example and simply be picky about what she or he eats. In this scenario, it is an individual expressing a preference, or a prejudice but not necessarily judging persons or cultures and denying any fundamental civil or human right to them.See: Institutional DiscriminationSource: "Discrimination". The American Heritage Dictionary Third Edition. 1994.
To deprive of a privilege, an immunity, a right of citizenship, especially the right to vote.Source: "Disenfranchise".The American Heritage Dictionary Third Edition. 1994.
Exercising the most influence or control.Source: "Dominance". The American Heritage Dictionary Third Edition. 1994.