Stands for "Common Era". Dates that precede C.E. refer to a date in our common calendar system, the Gregorian Calendar that were preceded by the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. C.E. replaces A.D. in many modern writings in order to more equitably refer to events in history without emphasis on Christian beliefs. Many Christians and conservatives are distressed by the use of these new terms. C.E.=A.D.An event that took place in 1950 A.D. took place 51 years ago and can also be written 1950 C.E. or 1950.Source: ReligiousTolerance.org
History: Christianity was traditionally understood to be founded by Jesus of Nazareth.Location: Christians span the globe and are present on all the inhabited continents and in most of the world's societies.Beliefs: Most Christian denominations and sects teach that man is sinful and can never inherit eternal life in the presence of God as a result of the sins of our first parents, Adam and Eve, as well as our own personal sin. It thus became necessary for God to become man in the person of Jesus Christ (known as the Incarnation), who as the Son of God was sinless and unblemished. His purpose was to suffer and die in atonement for the sins of all who accept his sacrifice for sin. The Church is the Bride of Christ whose purpose is to spread this message, "the Gospel", to all people before Christ's return to the earth to rule all nations as the heir to the throne of David.Book: The New Testament together with the Jewish Bible (the "Old Testament") make up the canon of Christianity.Symbols: The most well known symbol of Christianity is the cross, or crucifix, symbol of the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.Major branches: Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Protestantism.
A racial category that reflects individuals who identify as Cambodian or Cambodian AmericanSee: AsianSource: www.census.gov
Caucasian (White)
Of or relating to the white or light-skinned division of mankind.Source: "Caucasian". Illustrated Oxford Dictionary - Millennium Classic Limited Edition Collection. 1998.
A racial category that reflects individuals who identify as Cantonese, Chinese American, Taiwanese and others.See: AsianSource: www.census.gov
To confront: To meet or come face to face with, especially with hostility.In terms of bias and prejudice, we all have the option to be confronters, enablers, bystanders or victims of bias. Sometimes most difficult option is the role of the Confronter.Source: "Bias." The American Heritage Dictionary Third Edition. 1994.
Civil Rights
The rights of people to political and social freedom and equality.The Civil Rights Movement began as a multi-part campaign to end segregation and abolish the inequalities faced by African Americans in the latter part of the twentieth century. Challenges to segregation began with the famous Brown v. Board of Education supreme court case in 1954 and continued through Rosa Parks' refusal to take a back seat, Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I have a Dream" speech, as well as other non-violent protestations. Though challenged by an affront of legal discrimination, physical violence, emotional attack and continuing racism, prejudice and bigotry, the movement celebrated a legal victory with the passage of the 1964 Civil Rights Act. On paper, at least, discrimination based on color, religion, national origin, or gender was deemed illegal. Today, there is equality in a legal sense. American institutions of education, health care, employment etc. , however, still present a constant struggle for equal rights for racial, gender, religious, ethnic and sexual orientation minorities.To discuss Civil Rights without at least addressing the evolution of Women's Rights and the omnipresent struggle would be remiss. From the very beginning, the inequality of men and women under the Constitution has been an issue.The supporters of the Equal Rights Amendment between 1972 and 1982 lobbied, marched, rallied, petitioned, picketed, went on hunger strikes, and committed acts of civil disobedience.The first visible public demand for equality came in 1848, at the first Woman's Rights Convention in Seneca Falls, NY. Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott, who had met as abolitionists working against slavery, convened a two-day meeting of 300 women and men to call for justice for women in a society where they were systematically barred from the rights and privileges of citizens.Today, the Equal Rights Amendment still has not been added to the Constitution but, as with racial equality, on paper, it is not considered constitutional to discriminate or deny equal rights to women.See: Human RightsSource: "Civil Rights". Illustrated Oxford Dictionary- Millennium Classic Limited Edition Collection. 1998.
There are approximately 6 million Confucians in the world. About 26,000 live in North America; almost all of the remainder are found throughout China and the rest of Asia. K'ung Fu Tzu (commonly pronounced Confucius in English) who was born in 551 B.C.E. in the state of Lu (modern day Shantung Province) founded the religion. His writings deal primarily with individual morality and ethics, and the proper exercise of political power by the rulers.Beliefs include:Li: includes ritual, propriety, etiquette, etc.Hsiao: love within the family: love of parents for their children and of children for their parents.Yi: righteousness, Xin: honesty and trustworthiness.Jen: benevolence, humanness towards others; the highest Confucian virtue.Chung: loyalty to the state, etc.Confucianism does not contain all of the elements of some other religions, like Christianity and Islam. It is primarily an ethical system to which rituals at important times during one's lifetime have been added.The writings: "The Si Shu" or "Four Books" and "The Wu Jing" or "Five Classics." In China, and some other areas in Asia, the social ethics and moral teachings of Confucius are blended with the Taoist communion with nature and Buddhist concepts of the afterlife, to form a set of complementary, peacefully co-existent and ecumenical religions.Source: ReligiousTolerance.org
Continuum of Hate
The process by which bias crimes and hate-related harassment develop out of a culture of hate that reinforces in-group and out-group conflict. This self-perpetuating social climate stems from avoidance, which leads to ignorance that is then manifested in negative connotations in language and image, including stereotypes.The process is then incorporated from mores and values into the official sanctioning of discrimination, which coupled with continuous disenfranchisement and cultural separatism can result in physical and emotional harassment or violence and in extreme scenarios: extermination.Each stage of the continuum relies on its precursors. The evolution of avoidance to extermination can be broken down by the careful elimination of one or more of the points of the cycle.See: Culture of HateSources: Hate Crimes 101, BiasHELP's "Continuum of Hate Workshop"
The customs, civilizations or achievements of a particular time or people.Source: "Culture". Illustrated Oxford Dictionary-Millennium Classic Limited Edition Collection. 1998.
Culture of Hate
From humor and music to religion and politics, a person's group affiliation — the fact that he or she differs from people in the in-group — is being used more and more to provide a basis for dehumanizing and insulting that person.See: Continuum of HateSource: Healey, Joseph. Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. California: Pine Forge, 1998.
Class (Social)
A group of people who command similar amounts of valued goods and services, such as income, property and education. Sociologists argue that the class one is born into may determine their success because limitations to ones access to wealth, power, education, capital, health care etc. determine one's capacity to be socially mobile. Others suggest that how hard one works is the sole indicator of future success.Source: Healey, Joseph. Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. California: Pine Forge, 1998.
Cyberbullying is when an individual bullies another individual using an electronic method such as texting, instant messaging, or using a social network such as Facebook, Myspace, or Twitter.