Stands for "Before Christ". This is the designation for events that took place before the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. This term, however, has been designated by many groups that promote tolerance and diversity, as subjective. Using B.C. and A.D., for non Christians may imply the supremacy of the Christian God and of Jesus. Therefore, the terms C.E. and B.C.E. have been implemented to replace them. Conversely, many Christians and conservatives are distressed by these new terms. B.C.=B.C.E.An event that took place in 200 B.C. happened 2201 years ago and can be represented by 200 B.C. or 200 B.C.E. in more neutral terms.Source: ReligiousTolerance.org
Stands for "Before the Common Era". Dates that precede B.C.E. refer to a date in our common calendar system, the Gregorian Calendar that preceded the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. B.C.E. replaces B.C. in many modern writings in order to more equitably refer to events in history without emphasis on Christian beliefs. Many Christians and conservatives are distressed by the use of these new terms. B.C.E.=B.C.An event that took place in 200 B.C. happened 2201 years ago and can be represented by 200 BC or 200 B.C.E. in more neutral terms.Source: ReligiousTolerance.org
The Bah'a'i Faith arose from Islam, similar to the way Christianity arose from Judaism. It has since grown to be a worldwide faith.Siyyid 'Ali-Muhammad (1819-1850 C.E.) assumed the title Bab which means the Gate. In 1844, he announced the "Declaration of the Bab." He explained that the purpose of His mission was to herald the arrival of "One greater than Himself", who would fulfill the prophetic expectations of all the great religions. This date is regarded as the founding of the Bah'a'i Faith. His followers became known as Babis. 20,000 were martyred for their beliefs. The religion came to North America in 1893.The Bah'a'i Faith states that it currently has about 6 million members worldwide. The Bah'a'i's believe in an essential unity of the great religions of the world. However, this does not mean they believe the various religious creeds and doctrines are identical. Rather, they view all religions as having sprung from the same spiritual source. The social and outer forms of different religions vary due to the circumstances at the time that they were founded. Other differences in doctrine and belief can be attributed to later accretions, after the death of the founder. Some Baha'i' Beliefs: Bah'a'i beliefs promoted major social changes when originated in the 19th century: they supported gender and race equality; world government; freedom of expression and assembly; and world peace. In many ways, they were a century or more ahead of many other faiths.Every person has an immortal soul. Unlike everything else in creation, it is not subject to decomposition. At death, the soul is freed to travel through the spirit world. Followers are heavily involved in promoting these concepts today. Bah'a'i view scientific inquiry as essential to expand human knowledge and deepen their members' faith. They feel that science needs to be guided by spiritual principle so that its applications are beneficial to all humanity. Notably missing from the Baha'u'llah's teachings is the acceptance of homosexuality as a normal, natural sexual orientation for a minority of humans. Another policy, which appears to contradict the faith's promotion of gender equality, is the exclusion of women from serving on its highest religious court.Writings: Bah'a'i scripture comprises the writings of the Bab and Baha'u'llah, together with the writings of 'Abdu'l-Baha. Among the better known writings of Baha'u'llah are, The Most Holy Book, The Book of Certitude, Gleanings from the Writings of Baha'u'llah, The Hidden Words and The Seven Valleys. There are many others books of Bah'a'i scripture.There are about 350,000 Bah'a'i in Iran who are experiencing oppressive government persecution for their religious beliefs. They are looked on as heretics, because of Baha'u'llah's claim to be the latest prophet of God. Mohammed, the founder of Islam, declared himself to be the final prophet centuries earlier.Source: ReligiousTolerance.org
A preference or inclination that inhibits impartiality; prejudice.Biases are learned. They are not innate preferences, rather, are developed, nurtured and grow out of a lifetime of experiences, teachings and indirect cultural representations. For example, people may tend to associate with people who look, feel or somehow behave like them. From these interactions they (we) develop preferences and dislikes and then create in-groups and out-groups. The logical conclusion of which is that differences of opinion, combined with a limited ability to communicate with one another and a cultural sanctioning of violence can lead to hate crimes.Not all biases lead to crime. An individual can for example, love his mother's cooking and, when asked to judge a pie-baking contest, chooses his mother's as the best recipe. Bias can be as innocuous as favoring chocolate to vanilla or as caustic as hating Catholic people because one is Episcopalian.See: In-groupSource: "Bias". The American Heritage Dictionary Third Edition. 1994.
The terms "bias crime" and "hate crime" can be used interchangeably.See: Hate Crime
A person obstinately devoted to their own group or opinion; intolerant of others.Source: County of Suffolk. Suffolk County Human Rights Commission. Equal Opportunity is not something you find but somethingyou create. New York, Long Island. c. 1995
Of, for, or consisting of members of two races.It is important to recognize that nearly every human being has roots in more than one race. To define oneself as any race, (including that of bi-racial) is a personal decision. One's traditions, culture and personal classification may or may not reflect every aspect of his or her multi-racial ancestry and may or may not reflect the choices made by one's immediate family. Every person who has more than one ancestral race is legally "biracial". It is its own racial category. Those who are Japanese/American and those who are Black/Puerto Rican etc. are all, as a race, bi-racial. There are special concerns and hurdles that bi-racial people face that are vastly different from any (other) race. (Racism from within one's own culture(s) is one specific struggle). Certainly, as with all races, there are differences in the bi-racial experience for each individual.See: One Drop Rule, Blood QuantumSource: Dictionary.com
Sexually attracted to persons of both genders.Source: "Bisexual".Illustrated Oxford Dictionary - Millennium Classic Limited Edition Collection.1998.
The Black Power movement is a coalition of African-American groups that rose to prominence in the 1960's. Some central themes of the movement were black nationalism, autonomy for African-American communities, and pride in race and African heritage.Source: Healey, Joseph. Race, Ethnicity, Gender and Class: The Sociology of Group Conflict and Change. California: Pine Forge, 1998.
Blood quantum is a race categorization concept used by the federal government in allocating resources to Native Americans. In order to qualify, people must prove that they are at least 1/4 Native American and belong to a tribe. This concept equates percentages of blood with racial legitimacy.
Eastern Buddhism is the predominant religion in China, Japan, Korea and much of Vietnam. It was founded in Northern India by the Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama. He was born circa 563 B.C.E. in Lumbini which is in modern-day Nepal. Buddhism, like most of the great religions of the world, is divided into a number of different traditions.Some Buddhist beliefs: Reincarnation: the concept that one must go through many cycles of birth, living, and death. After many such cycles, if a person releases their attachment to desire and the self, they can attain Nirvana.The Buddha's Four Noble Truths may be described (somewhat simplistically) as: to be fully understood: the universality of suffering, to be abandoned: the desire to have and control things which cause suffering, to be made visible: the supreme truth and final liberation of nirvana which is achieved as the cause of suffering is eliminated. The mind experiences complete freedom and liberation, and to be brought into being: the truth of the eightfold arrival path leading to the cessation of suffering.Buddhism is not a single monolithic religion. Many of its adherents have combined the teachings of the Buddha with local religious rituals, beliefs and customs. Little conflict occurs, because Buddhism at its core is a philosophical system to which such additions can be easily grafted.There are various forms of Buddhism, all of which share a few common characteristics such as: Dana — thoughtful, ceremonial giving, Sila — accepting Buddhist teaching and following it in practice; refraining from killing, stealing, wrong behavior, use of drugs. On special days, three additional precepts may be added, restricting adornment, entertainment and comfort and making a Pilgrimage.Source: ReligiousTolerance.org
A member of a dark-skinned race.It is important to note that the term, when used to refer to race, encompasses African Americans but is not necessarily interchangeable with that phrase as it applies to a myriad of geographic sources including but not limited to Africa or America. A racially black person can also descend from the Caribbean, the West Indies, Australia or any other country, nation-state or the like, and is categorized both by ancestry and by skin color, hair texture, facial structure etc. One must be mindful when referring to a dark-skinned person or group of people that there are a variety of ancestral roots from which dark-skinned people may have descended. And respect to those roots should be maintained.See: African American, NegroidSources "Black". Illustrated Oxford Dictionary-Millennium Classic Limited Edition Collection.1998.
Bullying is defined as an individual hurting or scaring someone physically, emotionally, or psychologically, on purpose and repeatedly. Bullying can take the form of pushing, punching, spreading rumors, or excluding an individual from a group. Bullying should NOT be considered a "Normal part of life".
In Klan ceremony, the cross is a symbol of white supremacy and a tool for the intimidation and harassment of racial minorities and any other groups hated by the Klan. Cross burning was entirely unknown to the early Ku Klux Klan, which emerged in some Southern States during Reconstruction. The practice appears to have been according to Thomas Dixon, whose book "The Clansman" formed the basis for the movie, The Birth of a Nation, borrowed from an "old Scottish rite" (Dixon apparently believed that the members of the Reconstruction Ku Klux Klan were the "reincarnated souls of the Clansmen of Old Scotland").Although the cross took on some religious significance in the 1920's when the Klan became connected with certain southern white clergy, by the postwar period it had reverted to its original function as an instrument of intimidation. The (burning) cross appears to serve as a religious symbol for some Klan members but for the most part, it has simply been appropriated by the KKK as a symbol of hate.Source: Cornell.edu
One who is present at an event without participating.The relevance to is that, often without noticing we are bystanders to bias crime or hate-related harassment and are not equipped intellectually, physically or emotionally to respond. As a result, we may be seen as approving of the action and therefore perpetuating the status quo.Source: "Bystander."The American Heritage Dictionary Third Edition. 1994.